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Mastering Requirements Management with Use Cases

As a Rational Consultant I had the honor to co-author with Bryon Baker a revision of Rational's "Mastering Requirements with Use Cases" training class. I also taught this class and its predecessors many, many times.  This page provides some standard reading material that I provided to my students as well as references to continue their studies after the class.

Reading Material to Prepare for Class

bulletOverview paper for this course "Features, Use Cases, Requirements, Oh My!" by Dean Leffingwell
bulletMore elaborate example for a Requirements Management Plan by Stephen Smart
bulletThe ACRE Framework for selecting methods for requirements elicitation by N.A.M. Maiden and G. Rugg.

Additional References

This is an annotated list of literature reference and web resources to augment the material provided by the training class.

The current list covers the following topics:

bulletRequirements Engineering (RE) in General
bulletRecommended Textbooks
bulletConferences on Requirements Engineering
bulletRelevant Journals
bulletWeb/Internet Resources
bulletBooks and Publications on SRS Standards
bulletRecommended Overview Papers and Paper Collections
bulletScenarios and Use Cases
bulletThe CREWS project and my own work
bulletRecommended books and papers
bulletEthnography, Participatory/User-Centred Design
bulletRecommended books and papers
bulletRequirements Traceability
bulletReviews and Inspections
bulletRecommended books and papers
bulletRequirements and Software Metrics
bulletBarry Boehm's Work
bulletWeb resources
bulletThe i* (I-Star) framework


Requirements Engineering in General

Recommended Textbooks

Current Must-Reads
bulletKurt Bittner and Ian Spence, Use Case Modeling , Addison Wesley, 2002
Rational's new reference in the area of Use Case modelling and writing. A must read for every RMUC student.

bulletFrank Armour and Granville Miller, Advanced Use Case Modeling: Software Systems, Penguin Books, 2000
An excellent book providing detailed guidance on key practical issues and FAQs about Use Cases.

bulletD. Leffingwell and D. Widrig, Managing Software Requirements: A Unified Approach, Addison-Wesley, Object Technology Series, 2000.
The Rational book. Serves as the textbook for our course. If you are interested in the Requirements Management workflow of the RUP (Rational Unified Process), then this is your book.
bulletS. Robertson and J. Robertson, Mastering the Requirements Process, ACM Press, Addison-Wesley, 1999.
Provides an excellent overview to their RE process, which the Robertsons developed over many years of practical experience and training as two of the world's top consultants. Also, check their web page at The Atlantic Systems Guild containing a downloadable version of their specification template Volere.

bulletRalph R. Young, Effective Requirements Practices, Addison-Wesley, 2001.
Very broad an informative survey on Requirements Engineering techniques, standards, literature, and community.
bulletD. Hatley P. Hruschka, and I. Pirbhai, Process for System Architecture and Requirements Engineering, Dorset House Publishing, New York, 2000.
Personally, I always learned the most from books with many concrete examples and case studies, which is the major strength of this recently updated book. It also provides the reader with the perspective of systems engineering. Truly, a practitioners book written from a more traditional, less object-oriented point-of-view. Heavily, utilises classical Dataflow Diagrams (DFDs).
bulletI. Sommerville, Software Engineering, 6th Edition, Addison-Wesley, 2001.
This book can be classified as both: All-time classic and current must-read. Being around since 1982, this book is the ultimate textbook for every Software Engineering student. The latest edition has been completely revised and brought up-to-date (e.g. considering web development, using the UML for models and Java for program examples). The requirements part of the book covers requirements types, requirements processes, system models, prototyping, as well as formal specifications. Also very interesting: Slides for teaching with this textbook can be downloaded for free from the book's web page.

All-Time Classics

The books also have to be found on every Requirements Engineer's bookshelf.

bulletA.M. Davis, Software Requirements: Objects, Functions, and States, Prentice-Hall, 1993.
bulletDonald C. Gause and Gerald M. Weinberg. Exploring Requirements: Quality before Design. Dorset House Publishing, New York, 1989.
bulletM.A. Jackson, Software Requirements & Specifications — a lexicon of practice, principles and prejudices. Addison Wesley Press, 1995.
bulletG. Kotonya and I. Sommerville, Requirements Engineering: Processes and Techniques, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
bulletS.M. McMenamin and J.F. Palmer, Essential System Analysis. Prentice Hall, 1984.
bulletI. Sommerville and P. Sawyer, Requirements Engineering: A Good Practice Guide, John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
bulletE. Yourdon, Modern Structured Analysis, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989.
Further RE Book Reviews and References on the Web
bulletFind a comprehensive list of RE books reviews on Ian Alexander's (an independent RE consultant) homepage.
bullet Recommended books in Al Davis' Requirements Management Place web site.

Conferences on Requirements Engineering

The International symposium on RE is a biennial series, sponsored by the IEEE, that started in 1993. You can order all proceedings from the IEEE Computer Society Press:

bulletRE'93, San Diego, California, USA
bulletRE'95, York, UK
bulletRE'97, Annapolis, Maryland, USA
bulletRE'99, Limerick, Ireland (Proceedings)
bulletRE'01, Toronto, Canada

The RE symposium has a sister conference, the International Conference on Requirements Engineering, also sponsored by IEEE, which is held in even numbered years:

bulletICRE'94, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA
bulletICRE'96, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA
bulletICRE'98, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA (Proceedings)
bulletICRE'00, Schaumburg, Illinois (Proceedings)
bulletICRE'02, Essen, Germany

Relevant Journals

bullet Requirements Engineering Journal, Springer Verlag
bulletIEEE Software
bulletIEEE Transactions on Software Engineering

Web/Internet Resources

bullet SRE (Software Requirements Engineering) EMail list: Follow or participate in lively discussion on current RE topics of leading experts in the field.
bulletIEEE Task Force on Requirements Engineering
bulletHomepage of the Requirements Engineering Specialist Group (RESG) of the British Computer Society (BCS).

Books and Publications on SRS Standards

bulletM. Dorfman and R.H. Thayer. Standards, Guidelines and Examples on System and Software Requirements Engineering. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1990.
bulletC. Mazza, J. Fairclough, B. Melton, D. De Pablo, A. Scheffer, and R. Stevens. Software Engineering Standards. Prentice Hall, 1994.
bulletIEEE-830, Guide to Software Requirements Specification, ANSI/IEEE Std. 830, 1984.
bulletIEEE-610.12, IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology, 1991.

Recommended Overview Papers and Paper Collections

bulletM. Jarke and K. Pohl, "Requirements engineering in 2001: (virtually) managing a changing reality", Software Engineering Journal, Nov. 1994, pp. 257-266.
bulletKlaus Pohl, "Requirements Engineering: An Overview", Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, A. Kent, J. Williams (editors), Volume 36, Supplement 21, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1997.
bulletJ. Siddiqi and M.C. Shekaran, "Requirements Engineering: The Emerging Wisdom", IEEE Software, Vol. 13, No. 2, Mar. 1996, pp. 15-19.
bulletR.H. Thayer and M. Dorfman, Software Requirements Engineering, Second Edition, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1997.
bulletSpecial Issue on Requirements Engineering, IEEE Transaction on Software Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1977.

Scenarios and Use Cases

The CREWS Project

The CREWS project was an international basic research project funded by the European Commission (ESPRIT 21.903, 1996-1999) on the use of scenarios and use cases for requirements engineering processes. We developed and evaluated methods and tools for cooperative scenario-based requirements elicitation and validation.

bulletGo to the CREWS-Homepage to get all 77 papers we published during the CREWS project.
bulletSee my publications site for my own publications disseminated in the project.
Overview Papers
bulletK. Weidenhaupt, K. Pohl, M. Jarke, and P. Haumer. Scenario Usage in System Development: A Report on Current Practice”, IEEE Software, Mar., 1998, pp. 34-45.
bulletM. Jarke, X.T. Bui, J. Carroll. "Scenario Management – An Interdisciplinary Perspective", Requirements Engineering Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1998, pp. 155-173.
bulletM. Jarke, "CREWS: Towards Systematic Usage of Scenarios, Use Cases and Scenes", in Proc. of  WI '99 (Wirtschaftsinformatik), Saarbrücken, Springer Aktuell, March 3rd –5th, 1999.

Recommended Books and Papers

bulletA.I. Antón, "Goal-based Requirements Analysis", Proc. Int’l Conf. Requirements Eng. (ICRE'96), IEEE Computer Soc. Press, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA, pp. 136-144.
bulletM. Arnold, M. Erdmann, M.Glinz, P. Haumer, R. Knoll, B. Paech, K. Pohl, J. Ryser, R. Studer, and K. Weidenhaupt, "Survey on the Scenario Use in Twelve Selected Industrial Projects", Technical Report: Aachener Informatik Berichte (AIB), No. 98-7, RWTH Aachen, Fachgruppe Informatik, Germany, 1998.
bulletJ.M. Carroll, Scenario-Based Design: Envisioning Work and Technology in System Development, J. Wiley & Sons, 1995.
bulletA. Cockburn, “Structuring Use Cases with Goals”, Journal of Object-Oriented Programming, Vol. 10, No. 7,  Nov. 1997.
bulletA. Cockburn, Writing Effective Use Cases, Addison-Wesley, 2000.
bulletD. Filippidou, "Designing with Scenarios: A Critical Review of Current Research and Practice", Requirements Eng. Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1998, pp. 1-22.
bulletJ. Gausemeier, A. Fink, and O. Schlake, Szenario-Management: Planen und Führen mit Szenarien, Carl Hanser Verlag, München Wien, 1996 (in German).
bulletInteracting with Computers Journal, Special Issue on Scenarios, Vol. 13, No. 1, Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd., 2000.
bulletK. McGraw and K. Harbison, User-Centered Requirements: The Scenario-Based Engineering Process. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, Mahwah, New Jersey, 1997.
bulletN. Millard, P. Lynch, and K. Tracey. “Child's Play: Using Techniques Developed to Elicit Requirements from Children with Adults”, Proc. of 3rd Int’l. Conf. on Requirements Eng. (ICRE '98),  Colorado Springs, USA, April 6-10, 1998.
bulletC. Potts, K. Takahashi, and A.I. Antón. “Inquiry Based Requirements Analysis”, IEEE Software, Vol. 11, No. 2, Apr. 1994, pp. 21-32.
bulletRequirements Engineering Journal, Special Issue on Scenario Management, Vol. 3, No. 3-4, 1998.
bulletA.G. Sutcliffe, N.A.M. Maiden, S. Minocha, D. Manuel, "Supporting Scenario-based Requirements Engineering", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering: Special Issue on Scenario Management, Vol. 24, No. 12, 1998.
bulletIEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Special Issue on Scenario Management, Vol. 24, No. 12, 1998.

Ethnography, Participatory/User-Centred Design

Recommended books and papers

bulletH. Beyer and K. Holtzblatt, Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1997.
bulletJ.A. Goguen, "Formality and Informality in Requirements Engineering", Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Requirements Eng., IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996, pp. 102-108.
bulletJ. Greenbaum, M. Kyng, Design at Work: Cooperative Design of Computer Systems, Lawrence Earlbaum Associates Inc., Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1991.
bulletM. Hammersley and P. Atkinson, Ethnography: Principles in Practice, Second Edition, Routledge, London and New York, 1995.
bulletN.A.M. Maiden and G. Rugg, “ACRE: Selecting Methods For Requirements Acquisition”, Software Engineering Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1996, pp. 183-192.
bulletD. Schuler, A. Namioka, Participatory Design: Principles and Practices, Lawrence Earlbaum Associates Inc., Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1993.
bulletS. Viller and I. Sommerville, "Social analysis in the requirements engineering process: from ethnography to method", in Proc. of Fourth IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering (RE'99),  University of Limerick, Ireland, 7-11 June 1999, pp. 6-13.
bulletFind some interesting downloadable papers (e.g. from Beyer/Holtzblatt) from a special issue of the CACM on Annie Anton's page for her RE course.

Requirements Traceability

Recommended books and papers

bulletCommunications of the ACM, Special Issue on Requirements Traceability, December, 1998.
bulletR. Dömges and K. Pohl, "Adapting Trace Environments to Project Specific Needs", Communications of the ACM, December, 1998, pp. 54-62.
bulletO.C.Z. Gotel and A. Finkelstein, “An Analysis of the Requirements Traceability Problem”, Proc. 1st Int’l. Conf. on Requirements Eng., Colorado Springs, USA, April 1994, pp. 94-102.
bulletO.C.Z. Gotel and A. Finkelstein, "Contribution Structures", Proc. 2nd IEEE Int’l. Symp. on Requirements Eng. (RE95), York, England, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1995, pp. 100-107.
bulletP. Haumer, K. Pohl, and K. Weidenhaupt. Requirements Elicitation and Validation with Real World Scenes”, in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 12, Special Issue on Scenario Management, 1998, pp. 1036-1054.
bulletP. Haumer, M. Jarke, K. Pohl, K. Weidenhaupt, "Improving Reviews of Conceptual Models by Extended Traceability to Captured System Usage", in Interacting with Computers Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd., 2000, pp. 77-95.
bulletINCOSE Tool Database Working Group, Tools Survey: Requirements Management (RM) Tools, Content Owner: William L. McMullen, International Council on Systems Engineering, 1998-2001.
bulletK. Pohl. "PRO-ART: Enabling Requirements Pre-Traceability", Proc. of the 2nd Int'l. Conf. on Requirements Eng., Colorado-Springs, Colorado, USA, April 1996.
bulletK. Pohl, Process Centered Requirements Engineering. RSP marketed by J. Wiley & Sons Ltd., England, 1996.
bulletK. Pohl, K. Weidenhaupt, R. Dömges, P. Haumer, M. Jarke, R. Klamma, "Process-Integrated (Modelling) Environments (PRIME): Foundation and Implementation Framework", in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1999, pp. 343-410.
bulletB. Ramesh and M. Jarke, "Towards Reference Models for Requirements Traceability", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2000.

Reviews and Inspections

bulletR.G. Ebenau and S.H. Strauss, Software Inspection Process, Mc Graw Hill, Systems Design & Implementation Series, 1993.
bulletM.E. Fagan, "Design and Code Inspection to reduce Errors in program development", IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1976, pp. 182-211.
bulletM.E. Fagan, "Advances in Software Inspections", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 7, Jul. 1986, pp. 744-751.
bulletD.F. Freedman and G.M. Weinberg, Handbook of Walkthroughs, Inspections, and Technical Reviews: Evaluating Programs, Projects, and Products, Dorset House Publishing, New York, 1982.
bulletNASA, Software Formal Inspections Guidebook, Technical Report No. NASA-GB-A302 1993, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC 20546, available on the world wide web at http://satc.gsfc.nasa.gov/fi/, Aug., 1993.
bulletNASA, Software Formal Inspection Process Standard, Standard NASA-STD-2202-92, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC 20546, available on the world wide web at http://satc.gsfc.nasa.gov/fi/, Aug., 1993.
Also check the empirical studies on reviews and perspective-based reading performed by the Basili group and the NASA Software Engineering Laboratory.


Software and Requirements Metrics

Barry Boehm's Work

bulletBarry W. Boehm et al., Software Cost Estimation With COCOMO II, Prentice Hall, July 2000.
bulletThe COCOMO II web page
bulletAlso see the list of Barry Boehm's publications at the DBLP

Web Resources

bulletSoftware Metrics Research and Development at NASA
bulletCOSMIC-FFP @ the SE Management Research Laboratory, Univ. Montreal

The i* (I-Star) framework

bulletEric Yu's homepage with many downloadable papers and i* resources
bulletLawrence Chung's homepage (principal author of the book Non-Functional Requirements in Software Engineering)
bulletThe OME3 tool suporting i* and NFR modelling

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